Android Security: Control Flow Integrity in the Android kernel

by Sami Tolvanen, Staff Software Engineer, Android Security

Android’s security model is enforced by the Linux kernel, which makes it a tempting target for attackers. We have put a lot of effort into hardening the kernel in previous Android releases and in Android 9, we continued this work by focusing on compiler-based security mitigations against code reuse attacks. Google’s Pixel 3 will be the first Android device to ship with LLVM’s forward-edge Control Flow Integrity (CFI) enforcement in the kernel, and we have made CFI support available in Android kernel versions 4.9 and 4.14. This post describes how kernel CFI works and provides solutions to the most common issues developers might run into when enabling the feature.[…]

https://android-developers.googleblog.com/2018/10/control-flow-integrity-in-android-kernel.html

 

HowToForge: Building and flashing a secured AOSP build with verified boot and separate lockscreen password for the Nexus 5X

[…]This tutorial aims to provide detailed instructions on how to solve these caveats, building and flashing AOSP for the Nexus 5X with verified boot and using separate lockscreen/encryption secrets.

https://www.howtoforge.com/tutorial/building-and-flashing-a-secured-aosp-build-with-verified-boot-and-separate-lockscreen-password-for-the-nexus-5x/

vdexExtractor: Unhide APIs when decompiling files from Android P

https://github.com/anestisb/vdexExtractor/commit/6f69698ba310599dfbf7f7253773956d2c2f99cd

https://github.com/anestisb/vdexExtractor

vdexExtractor is a tool to decompile & extract Android Dex bytecode from Vdex files.

CopperheadOS: rebooting

Re: https://firmwaresecurity.com/2018/07/12/copperheados-continuing-with-new-team/

https://github.com/copperheados

There’re also a series of tweets to show the current perspective of open source software (”source-available software’):

Haven and evil maids

https://github.com/guardianproject/haven

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.havenapp.main

https://guardianproject.github.io/haven/

https://irishtechnews.ie/dealing-with-evil-maid-exploits-and-how-to-protect-your-company/

Dealing with Evil Maid exploits and how to protect your company.
Giulio D’Agostino
August 18, 2018
CyberSecurityMalwareSecurity

An Evil Maid assault is when a device has physically tampered without the device owner’s knowledge. Evil Maid attacks where a bootloader has been installed onto the victim’s computer which defeats full disk encryption. Now, however, thanks to solutions like Edward Snowden’s new Android program, which is called Haven, people can help prevent Evil Maid strikes and protect their devices from physical tampering while they’re not present.[…]This program is vital for those that have sensitive information on their devices and need extra protection against Evil Maid attacks. […]

Seealso: YONTMA and DoNotDisturb

https://firmwaresecurity.com/2018/04/27/donotdisturb-now-with-email-support-and-yontma/

AndroidHardening’s Auditor app for Android

Re: https://firmwaresecurity.com/2018/06/13/copperheados-and-androidhardening-project/

 Hardware-based attestation app for select Android devices. It can do either local verification with another Android device via QR code or scheduled server-based verification. It primarily relies on Trust On First Use using the hardware-backed keystore and key attestation. The initial unpaired verification relies on key attestation root.

https://github.com/AndroidHardening/Auditor/releases/tag/1

https://github.com/AndroidHardening/Auditor

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=app.attestation.auditor

Google Android: Pixel firmware security updates

[…]To prevent attackers from replacing our firmware with a malicious version, we apply digital signatures. There are two ways for an attacker to defeat the signature checks and install a malicious replacement for firmware: find and exploit vulnerabilities in the signature-checking process or gain access to the signing key and get their malicious version signed so the device will accept it as a legitimate update. The signature-checking software is tiny, isolated, and vetted with extreme thoroughness. Defeating it is hard. The signing keys, however, must exist somewhere, and there must be people who have access to them.[…]

https://security.googleblog.com/2018/06/insider-attack-resistance.html

Heather Mahalik: Android and iIOS smartphone acquisition techniques

Smartphone Acquisition: Adapt, Adjust and Get Smarter!
June 25, 2018 Heather Mahalik Leave a comment

June 25, 2018

I have been recently asked by students for a summary on how to handle smartphone acquisition of iOS and Android devices. I have avoided writing it down, like I would avoid the Plague, because mobile changes so quickly and I don’t want people to read something and live by it. I wrote this on my plane ride to Vancouver, so forgive any typos or briefness in this blog.[…]

https://smarterforensics.com/2018/06/smartphone-acquisition-adapt-adjust-and-get-smarter/

GPUTop: a GPU profiling tool

Intel posted info about a new blog post using GPUTop with Caledon (Intel-flavored Android):

We are excited to bring out a new tutorial for profiling gpu on Android. Gputop exposes many GPU parameters module wise such as frequency, busyness, threads, EU activeness etc. These are very helpful in identifying performance bottlenecks as well as impact of performance improvements on the GPU either through graphics software stack or through the graphics application. If you are learning/ new to gpu, this should attract you even more. Please take a look, try out and feel free to share your feedback.

https://01.org/projectceladon/documentation/tutorials/profiling-gpu

https://github.com/rib/gputop

GPU Top is a tool to help developers understand GPU performance counters and provide graphical and machine readable data for the performance analysis of drivers and applications. GPU Top is compatible with all GPU programming apis such as OpenGL, OpenCL or Vulkan since it primarily deals with capturing periodic sampled metrics. GPU Top so far includes a web based interactive UI as well as a non-interactive CSV logging tool suited to being integrated into continuous regression testing systems. Both of these tools can capture metrics from a remote system so as to try an minimize their impact on the system being profiled. GPUs supported so far include: Haswell, Broadwell, Cherryview, Skylake, Broxton, Apollo Lake, Kabylake, Cannonlake and Coffeelake.

https://lists.01.org/mailman/listinfo/celadon

Demystifying Android Physical Acquisition

Demystifying Android Physical Acquisition
May 29th, 2018 by Oleg Afonin

Numerous vendors advertise many types of solutions for extracting evidence from Android devices. The companies claim to support tens of thousands of models, creating the impression that most (if not all) Android devices can be successfully acquired using one method or another. On the other side of this coin is encryption. Each Google-certified Android device released with Android 6.0 or later must be fully encrypted by the time the user completes the initial setup. There is no user-accessible option to decrypt the device or to otherwise skip the encryption. While this Google’s policy initially caused concerns among the users and OEM’s, today the strategy paid out with the majority of Android handsets being already encrypted. So how do the suppliers of forensic software overcome encryption, and can they actually extract anything from an encrypted Android smartphone locked with an unknown passcode? We did our own research. Bear with us to find out![…]

https://blog.elcomsoft.com/2018/05/demystifying-android-physical-acquisition/

Android bootloader flow documentation published

Alex Deymo notes that the Android project has more documentation on their boot process, and posted about it on the U-Boot mailing list:

“Just an FYI, earlier this month the team spent some time polishing and publishing in source.android.com documentation about the flows the bootloader goes through in Android, specially true for stock Android like in Pixels phones or other devices based of recent AOSP versions. This documentation includes the interaction between userspace and the bootloader such as the properties userspace expects when booting A/B devices, the whole A/B flow, the bootloader message in the misc partition (BCB), how they interact with the “recovery mode” in Android and much more.

https://lists.denx.de/pipermail/u-boot/2018-May/329886.html

https://source.android.com/devices/bootloader/

Intel reboots Android-IA as Project Celadon

We are excited to let you know about the refresh of the Android-IA project called Celadon. Celadon is the open sourced Android reference stack for Intel architecture that you are already familiar with, but now with more added to the stack. What started with a few open source drivers support including Mesa i965, I915 Linux Kernel Graphics Driver, and Video Acceleration API last year has since grown into a feature-rich Android stack for IA. Celadon will continue to be dedicated to driving Android support and innovation on IA in addition to providing a place for collaboration. We believe Celadon can help you enhance validation, debug and accelerate development across Android implementations on IA platforms.

https://lists.01.org/pipermail/celadon/2018-May/001235.html
https://lists.01.org/pipermail/celadon/2018-May/001237.html
https://01.org/projectceladon
https://github.com/projectceladon